Monday, July 30, 2012

Mountain Goats of Montana

I can't believe it's been five years since we've seen the Mountain Goats in Glacier (Glacier)National Park, up in Northwest Montana (Montana). We returned a few years ago, but we were fogged out. It was a good year for snow cover, but wildlife viewing was limited.

Mountain Goats molt (shed some hair) beginning in the spring, so this shaggy appearance is normal.

This one is probably still up there, because their lifespan is about 12-15 years in the wild.

These are not Rocky Mountain Sheep, which have a longer, brownish body; are heavier; with massive, spiralling, horns.

Mountain Goats are white, with a coat of long, relatively coarse hair. The dense, woolly undercoat is covered by an outer layer of hollow hairs; both providing warmth and insulation from the cold of their high elevation habitat.

Five species and subspecies range through the Rocky Mountains and coast ranges from Alaska south to Montana and Idaho. They are limited largely to national parks.

They range high in the summer, low in the winter; primarily in alpine and sub alpine habitats, but almost always above treeline.

Here's a good look at the horns, which are 6" to 11" long (15-28cm). Both males and females have horns, and are slightly longer on the males. A closer look would reveal annual growth rings. Both sexes and the young are colored alike.

Length: up to 5.5 feet, (165cm) including a 6.5 inch tail (165mm).
Height: at the shoulder 3 - 3.5 feet (91-107cm)
Weight: 100 - 300 pounds (45-135 kg)

Their habitat is rocky crags near the snowline. On steep slopes and benches along cliffs; usually at or above timberline. Look! I see some coming now. From up on that rocky crag. No way they can get down that nearly vertical stone wall!

(Click on any photo to enlarge)

Mountain Goats are superior climbers and jumpers. Sure-footed at all times in steep, rocky slopes up to 60* pitch. The hard, cloven hooves can be spread apart as needed, and the inner pads provide traction.

OMG ! Did you see that? What a jump! Superior climbers? Oh yeah!

These mammals are primarily diurnal (active during the day). Usually seen in groups of fewer than ten. Part grazer and part browser. They feed on various mountain vegetation: grasses, herbs, sedges, ferns, moss, lichen, twigs and needles from low-growing shrubs and conifers that grow in their high mountain habitat.

Their territory is about 3 - 6 miles (4.8-9.6km) across.

Down they come. How many adults do you see? How many kids? The mother goat often feeds below the kid, to possibly stop it if the kid begins to fall.

Mountain Goats can first breed at 2 1/2 years of age. Breeding season is October to December. The young are born six months after breeding; usually May to June. Usually a single kid, occasionally two. The kids can run and attempt to climb mere hours after they're born. The kids weigh seven pounds (3kg) at birth, are weaned in one month, but follow the mother and the small herd for one year.

 That is some serious rock climbing going on up there.


Mountain Lions, wolves, foxes, and Golden Eagles sometimes take young kids. Mountain Goats usually move slowly, but when danger threatens, they rapidly scale difficult rock faces, reaching nooks and crannies that are inaccessible to predators.

The chief cause of death is actually from avalanches.

It was easy for this kid, born in the spring, to spring up onto this giant boulder. Isn't he cute?

This one has a nice white coat, and a bit of a beard. If you get this close, please do not feed them. They are wild. Please do your part to keep them wild.

This sure-footed creature of the mountains is probably checking out this Subaru (Subaru); a sure-footed vehicle in the mountains. It's a favorite of the many people fortunate to be living in the Rocky Mountain West.

Are you getting the urge to visit NW Montana? Remember, it's high elevation on the "Going-to-the-Sun Road" (Sun), and comfortably cool in Glacier National Park.

If you go, bring your coats. And say "Hi" to the Mountain Goats.

Mountain Goat - Oreamnos americanus

Photo LocationGlacier National Park - Montana 


Peterson Field Guide to the Mammals (Peterson)

Fieldbook of Natural History by E. Laurence Palmer (Palmer) c 1949

Saturday, July 28, 2012

Three Tiger Swallowtails

Scientific-Poet Looks at Butterflies

of delicate structure
and ethereal flight
flitting aimlessly for
mate or some nectar

the family name
from two Greek words
lepi - scale, ptera - wing

siphoning mouthparts
coiled like a watchspring
under the head
until it's needed

unfurls into tube
called a proboscis
probes deep into flowers
searching for nectar

thread-like antennae
long and slender
knobbed or hooked
at their tips

narrow extensions
on the hindwings
which resemble
forked tails of swallows

two pairs of wings
covered like roof shingles
with thousands of scales
overlapping and minuscule

pigments in scales
and structure of prisms
bends white light
to produce iridescence

intricate patterns
refracting the light
kaleidoscope of color
crown jewels of insect world

courtship involves
stroking of wings
mating may last for hours
often occurs during flight

courtship and mating
egg-laying and pollinating
life-span is short
some live only two to three weeks

egg, larva, pupa, adult
caterpillar to chrysalis
hidden transformation
the miracle of metamorphosis

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail  (Papilio glaucus)

Photo Location:  Harbor Springs, (Harbor Springs) Michigan


The Practical Entomologist - (Entomologist) Rick Imes  c 1992

The Handy Bug Answer Book -  (Answer Book) Dr. Gilbert Waldbauer c 1998

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Loons of Lilley Lake 2

The Loons stayed. And you, loyal viewer, returned to Lilley Lake. Thanks for coming back.

In case you missed the earlier segment, you may want to read that first: "Loons of Lilley Lake"

Dirk's goal, always thinking of others, was to maneuver me into position for the best possible photographs. That he did. As we got close enough for this shot, I was thinking to myself, "I can't believe this is happening. That I'm really here photographing Loons this close!"

With every click of the shutter, I'm whispering "Thank you God! Thank you!"

Their feathers may lack the flamboyant colors of other birds, but this is a striking pattern of black and white. A very intricate design. I absolutely love that tapered ring of fine-line, black and white vertical stripes on the neck. Above and below this classy collar, can you detect a slight, iridescent greenish black? It all depends on the light.

The Loon's body is streamlined, torpedo-like; the head is large, the neck is strong. Underwater, the legs push the body with hard strokes and minimum drag. The feet fold up to move forward with each stroke. When it unfolds again, three large toes and full webbing push the bird to overtake the fish it's chasing.

Underwater, the wings look more like fins, prompting John James Audubon to report that the loon used its wings to swim through the water. Modern scientists say the wings are more for controlling direction than for speed. When swimming fast underwater, the loon can use a leg and foot like a brake to pivot quickly and strike with its bill at a fish trying to evade attack. Smaller fish are captured more often because they cannot swim as fast as larger fish.

Common Loon - Genus and species: Gavia immer (Latin: immerge: to dip, dive, plunge)

This one is previewing the underwater  area for possible prey, in preparation for a dive. Some scientists believe the red eye may improve underwater vision for fishing.

We could not determine if this was a male or a female, because there are no differences in plumage, and only a very slight difference in size.

There are five separate species of Loon in North America:

  1. Common Loon
  2. Arctic Loon
  3. Yellow-billed Loon
  4. Red-throated Loon
  5. Pacific Loon
The Loon is one of three freshwater diving birds. Grebes and Mergansers are the others.

The Loon's legs are located near the tail, for skill in diving and swimming ; not for launching or strolling. Its entire body is made for the water. The loon can control its bouyancy to float fully immersed, or with most of its body on the surface.

Because of its leg placement, the loon needs 1/8 to 1/4 mile (200-400km) to get airborne. The legs churn, wings whirr, and the feet are flapping on the surface in quick, panicky steps; leaving "splashprints" in its wake. Faster and faster, with frantic effort the wings finally catch air, the bird gets horizontal, and it is flying. It may require a few laps of the lake to clear the trees if it plans to find a new feeding area.

A pilot, flying near Charlotte, North Carolina, noticed a Common Loon flying at about 1200 feet; and he tracked it flying at 80-100 mph.

The Loon chicks you see here could live the average lifespan of 15 to 30 years, if they find suitable habitat.

Speaking of habitat. Look what I found on a license plate when Mary and I were walking a trail from Townsend Park (Townsend Park) to Sunfish Lake this week.

And it's from MICHIGAN! When renewing their license plate, Michigan residents can designate a contribution to be applied to a fund which helps conserve wildlife habitat. And they get this cool-looking design; like this BKPKR did. (Plate) Does your state do this? Loons are plentiful in Maine, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. They must be doing something right.

(Click on any photo to enlarge)

Loons prefer deeper lakes, as well as island nests, with deep water next to the nest. This location helps deter, predators, somewhat. Raccoons, Fox, and Mink are the chief predators of the chicks while in the egg or in the nest. Crows and Ravens may eat the eggs. Sometimes Gulls may take them right out of the nest. When they enter the water, Snapping Turtles (see post: "Non-Snapping Turtles" 6-7-12) and Northern Pike may take them off the surface of the lake.

During my research, I read that the loon's feet are extremely large in proportion to their body size. Compared to humans, the average loon foot (3" X 5") would be equivalent to a shoe size 27!

The Range of the common Loon:

Summer Nesting Grounds - Canada, Alaska, Iceland, Greenland, and northern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Maine.

Wintering Grounds - Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida Keys, Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas, Pacific coast from California Baja to southern Alaska.

Their Courtship is gentle, ritualized bill-dipping, shallow dives, and head rubbing.

Size - Length: 28 to 35 inches; Weight: 8 to 12 pounds; Wingspan: up to 58 inches

Look at this Magnificent Bird

Look at this magnificent bird.
Pinpoints of water collect
on smooth, black velvet.
Sun glistens off wet beak
as long drop falls to lake.
Streaked wedge of collar
borders iridescent green throat.
Plump, white breast blends into
rows of rectangled whites.
Shiny black back,
holds intricate design.
Sharp black pupil watches
from deep ruby iris.
Look at this magnificent bird.

When these chicks learn to fly, as adults, they will generate 250 wingbeats per minute.
Their big feet paddle alternately. Like most birds, their body temperature is about 102*F.

Average dive time = 20 - 45 seconds. Most birds have hollow bones, but the more solid bones of Loons favors diving over aerial freedom.

When hunting underwater, they eat 99% fish: perch, suckers, bullheads, bluegills, sunfish, smelt, and minnows. Non-fish food includes: crayfish, frogs, salamanders,  and leeches.

They are flexible feeders; they eat what they find. Loons generally swallow their prey underwater, except when feeding their young.

 Loons snatch all prey in their beak. They do not spear it. Here a parent captures a crayfish...

and feeds it to one of her chicks. Generally, the firstborn is more aggressive, and therefore gets more food.

Their territory depends on the quality of the habitat, and the density of loons in the area. Generally it's 20 to 200 acres; averaging 70 acres. Loons prefer clear water, because they are sight-hunters. They do not feed at night.

Their winter, saltwater diet (Gulf and Atlantic Coasts) consists of: cod, herring, sea trout, flounder, sculpin, menhaden, mackerel, and crabs.

Nice reflection.

The nest construction is merely a pile of mud and available vegetation, with a shallow depression in the middle. A few, small repairs may be made during incubation. Although Dirk took us into Sesson Lake to search for a nest, we were unable to locate one.

Loons typically lay two large eggs one day apart, olive green-brown with dark brown spots. The eggs are 3 3/8" long, and 2 1/4" in diameter.

Incubation is shared by both males and females for 27 to 31 days (average 28 days), and about 17 hours of hatching time is needed. After emerging from the shell, the chick is unsightly, with wet, black feathers plastered against its oddly-shaped body. Two hours later, it's a cute little ball of black fluff.

After the second chick is hatched and dried, both chicks are lured into the water.

The first two weeks of life are the most dangerous for the loon chicks. The highest mortality occurs in the first four days. If it reaches three weeks old, its chances are very good of reaching fledgling age.

50 - 65 % of their first two weeks is spent riding on the backs of adults; partly for protection, partly for warmth. I wish I could have been on Lilley Lake earlier, so I could show you this classic view.

Soon after getting into the water loon chicks attempt to dive, but they pop up like a cork due to their buoyancy. At about two weeks of age their legs are strong enough to push their buoyant bodies below the surface.  Meanwhile, parents feed the young with the most abundant and easily caught prey.

In the early rearing of chicks, loons prefer shallow water close to land, and protected from prevailing winds and heavy waves. A good training area for chicks to develop their own skills at foraging.

By the third week, the parent will drop an injured fish in front of a chick, who then retrieves it. Dirk called about a week after our visit to Lilley Lake. He had observed a parent Loon that found a dying bluegill on the surface, cut it up smaller, and dropped it near the chicks. This occurred four feet off the end of his dock!

By eight weeks old, young loons are almost fully feathered, with larger feet and stronger legs. Parents now leave them for longer periods, while the chicks forage on their own. At eleven weeks they feed themselves independently for most of the day, but will still beg for food from their parents.

The calls of the Common Loon are the hoot, wail, tremolo, and the yodel. Much has been written about their haunting, unforgettable, unbelievable calls. You really have to experience it for yourself. Here is how George Harrison described it in 1983:

"If perchance you have never had the good fortune to hear the cry of the common loon, you have missed the full enjoyment of the wilderness. Like the howl of a timber wolf, the bugling of a bull elk and the singing of a humpback whale, the mournful cry of the loon is unique."

The call of the Loon is simply one of the loveliest sounds in Nature.

We are getting near the end of our story now, and I wanted you to have a chance to give a big "THANK YOU " to Dirk for his patience, his persistence, and his expert boating skills.

As we approach their nicely-kept cottage, give another big thanks to Jan, for our delicious lunch. She also graciously volunteered to stay back while Mary, Dirk, and I pursued the Loons, just so we would have more room. I told you they were nice.

From their deck, they sometimes hear and see the largest of woodpeckers; the Pileated. From their dock, they occasionally spot a Bald Eagle soaring overhead. And nearly everyday the Loons are present; fishing, sometimes right alongside Dirk's boat, competing for Bluegills.

Look at the lush, green lawn, the comfortable shade, the fire pit, feel the cooling breeze coming off the lake and rising up the slope to the deck. That's our good friends Jan and Dirk  grilling shish kabobs up there. Mary is in the yellow, waving me in for lunch. I am still out in the water taking a photograph as a last surprise for you.

Dirk and Jan gave me permission to show this. I have mixed feelings about doing it. When they sell it, I may never be able to see, hear, and photograph the lovely Loons again. However, we will always remain friends with Dirk and Jan.

But just think about it.
This could all be yours!
We could all be friends.

And the "Loons of Lilley Lakecould have more chapters.

I'll miss you "Father Nature". Please come again.


Loon Magic - (Magic) Tom Klein c 1985

Love of Loons - (Love) Kate Crowley & Mike Link  c 1987

Monday, July 23, 2012

Loons of Lilley Lake

During the mid-1930s, fishing was good at Buck's Lodge. Over 70 years have passed now, and several owners have enjoyed their times of peace and quiet on this pristine lake. The cottage has held many names over these decades, and the fishing is still good into this new century.

Here is some evidence. A recent owner named Harry kept meticulous records of his fishing success for many years. A small sample from his log reveals his typical skill with rod and reel. It appears, according to the numbers, that he always had a fishing partner; because the limit here in Michigan is 25 panfish per angler per day. Take a look at his data:

Date          Caught          Kept                    Best

7-28-03          55               40                      9 3/4" Bluegill
8-25-04          98               51                      8 1/2" Bluegill
6-17-05          55               47                      10" Perch
6-18-05          52               40                      2, 9" Crappie

Harry was efficient; in his boat, and in his fishing log.

Dirk & Jan's lovely cottage on Lilley Lake.

We were fortunate to meet the current owners, Dirk and Jan, at "Kids' Food Basket", (KFB) where we both volunteer. It must have been Mary's delicious desserts after dinner at our place that led to an invitation to their cottage on Lilley Lake. That, and my keen interest in possibly getting a chance to photograph their Loons. Jan and Dirk had been following WWFN for several weeks, and were very gracious in offering me this opportunity.

Mary and I had not heard the Loon's call since our early days of tent camping. We had a site at Green Lake, now called Interlochen State Park, back in the '80s. This is near the world famous Interlochen Arts Academy (Interlochen), in NW lower Michigan.

We were eager with anticipation to hear the Loons of Lilley Lake. On the phone, Dirk kept saying he couldn't guarantee a sighting or a call, but they had been seeing the Loons quite frequently. I had been holding my hopes up for over a week.

Jan and Dirk are about our age. A kind, giving, and easy-going couple. They sincerely appreciate all the gifts they've been given in their lives, and have also endured serious physical hardships as well. They give credit to the Giver through their solid Christian faith for the gifts, as well as the source of strength to survive their years of trials. You would really like them. We sure do.

As a Master Carpenter, Dirk is a detail man, and the driving directions he provided were precise. We arrived one morning in late June, with my camera ready. Jan, the thoughtful hostess, offered refreshments on the deck before we scouted the lake for Loons. "Well, thank you Jan, but maybe we should look first while it's still early, then..."

Then, we heard the unforgettable call of a Loon in the distance!

We walked down the gentle slope to the lake, onto their solid, aluminum dock,  and climbed into their 14' aluminum fishing boat. Dirk thought our odds of approaching closer to the Loons were better in a smaller craft, rather than that comfortable and classy pontoon you see.

I chose a position in the bow; a padded seat with a backrest, and it swiveled. Perfect if we spotted any Loons. Mary sat in the middle seat, excited for a chance to use her new birthday binoculars.

Dirk used his 7 HP to slowly motor us along the east shore of this "no wake" lake. Lilley Lake spreads out for 58 acres, and in some places is 50 feet deep. About 1/3 of its perimeter holds modest cottages, while 2/3 remains wild and natural. A narrow channel connects to 34-acre Sisson Lake, which has only a handful of cottages.

We rounded the NE corner of Lilley Lake, with my hopes still optimistically high.

Dirk took us along the deserted north shore, now heading west.

This is Dirk our proficient pilot, scouting with his 7HP motor. Hoping we can find the Loons on Lilley Lake.

Suddenly we spotted them! About 160 yards away: one adult, and two chicks.

Dirk now switched from gas to battery power. Slowly, patiently, we moved closer. Barely a fold in the water from the quiet, electric trolling motor. Not even a vibration, just a subdued humming sound, barely discernible. We were making less wake than the Loons were as they swam around the area.

By this time, I knew for certain that Dirk was an expert at the helm. We gradually closed the distance between the three birders and the three birds. I anchored my feet on the rim of the bow, and held my heavy camera lens firm, my elbows braced against my knees, prepared to swivel and shoot. I've only got a 70-200 mm zoom (with 1.4X extender), so we needed to be quite close for a decent shot.

Would the Loons stay? Retreat into the brush along shore? Dive and disappear? Or immediately beat out a long and frenzied  escape?

You will know the results, and learn a lot about Loons when you view:

Saturday, July 21, 2012

"Blog" - The Tree Frog

"Hello, is this the Tree Frog House?"

 We have lived in our house-surrounded-by-woods for 15 years now. For 15 summers Gray Tree Frogs have added to the many amenities we enjoy out here on these ten acres. We are grateful for the blessing to be embraced by the quiet.

Quiet, living this far out in the country, includes:
  • Coyotes - occasionally yipping or howling in the extreme darkness
  • Sandhill Cranes - calling all day from late February through October
  • Barred Owls - at dusk, asking "Who-cooks-for-you?"
  • Pileated Woodpeckers - big-bodied; powerful beaks hammering the hardwoods
  • Spring Warblers - their eagerly anticipated migration, and exquisite, expressive songs

Our small wetland is alive, first with Spring Peepers, joined soon by Chorus Frogs. Then, beginning in late April to mid-May, that unmistakable, resonating trill of the Gray Tree Frogs. First we hear them from a distance. One will call, with long stretches of time between calls.

By the end of May their resonant trill is heard closer in, and more frequently; by more individuals, especially on warm, humid days. But it's difficult to determine where the sound is coming from. Is it wedged in the eaves?  Ducked under the deck rails? Tucked in the table? Hidden in the shade of the potted plants around the deck?

By June and July we hear them frequently, and see them occasionally. Various authors describe its call in various ways:
  • a slow, musical trill
  • a resonant, flute-like trill
  • a loud churring sound
  • similar to the call of the Red-bellied Woodpecker
  • note: cooler temperatures means a slower trilling
  • the expanding dewlap (throat pouch) quivers as he calls
Listen to this recording from youtube :

When at rest, the Gray Tree Frog has a deflated throat that vibrates at a very low amplitude. Then, to call, his whole plump body contracts and suddenly looks skinny, while his loud, penetrating churring sound erupts at the same time that his throat balloon inflates. As you can tell by my use of the pronouns he and his, only the male tree frog produces this call. Females prefer the longer-lasting calls when choosing a mate.

This small (1.25" - 2") amphibian  (the female may be slightly larger) is seldom seen on the ground or at water's edge, except during breeding season, when eggs are laid under moist vegetation, in a temporary pond or wetland. Females lay about 2,000 eggs; hatching in four days, then need four months to achieve the juvenile size and form. The younger frogs are usually greener, before they turn gray/green, and develop a pattern of darker marks on their back.

 Except for the brief breeding season, they are mostly solitary. They mainly forage aloft in trees and shrubs. This is called arboreal, or tree dweller. The life span is about seven years.

They are experts at camouflage; especially in their native habitat, clinging to the rough bark of larger tree trunks.

(This shot is very close to life-size, on a laptop)

Well concealed here on the trunk of one of our Red Oaks; its colors and pattern blend well with the light/dark pattern of the bark and splotches of lichen.

The Gray Tree Frog is normally gray or green, but has other variations: brownish, pearl-gray, pale green, and gray-green. They are somewhat adaptable in color, but are very slow to change. The light spot beneath its eye is a distinctive field mark.

The concealed surfaces under the hind legs are a golden yellow, mottled with black.

The skin on its back is quite warty for a tree frog. The warts are numerous, but small compared to the common American Toad.

Checking the Range Maps, they are found from southern Canada and Maine, south to the Gulf states and northern Florida, but generally east of a line from Minnesota to eastern Texas, in the eastern United States.

Genus:  Hyla   Species:  versicolor   (as in versatile colors)

Predators: Raccoons, Skunks, Crows, and Snakes.

(Northern Ribbon Snake)

It seems like only yesterday when I taught "Nature Study" at Kentwood Public Schools, (Kentwood) where my students assigned me the title "Father Nature". We kept several animals in our middle school classroom, and one of the easiest to maintain was a terrarium of Gray Tree Frogs.

I would collect three or four in early September, and we kept them alive and well until early May, when I would release them into our woods, exactly where I had found them.

Students would volunteer to be responsible for the care and maintenance of the collection of animals in the classroom. Supportive parents would bring their children in early, before school began, knowing that their kids would develop responsibility along with what they would learn while doing the "work." These "PMTs" (Pet Maintenance Technicians) would feed crickets from VI Pets (VI Pets) to the Gray Tree Frogs throughout the school year. I relied on them, and they were reliable.

I have been retired for four years now. A few weeks ago, my favorite PMT invited me to her Open House - Graduation party. Kailie cried when she saw me, and gave me a big, warm hug. She still had her infectious enthusiasm and lovely smile. Kailie has grown into a charming young lady. She will be attending Aquinas College, (Aquinas) here in Grand Rapids. Kailie told me she wants to be a Teacher.

Okay, now let us leapfrog back to the classroom. Occasionally the frogs would would trill, especially, it seemed, when we studied Amphibians in the spring.

I remember once when my students coaxed me into doing my repertoire of bird calls during our nine-week Spring Birding session. I was imitating an Eastern Screech Owl, when a Gray Tree Frog replied from his terrarium. I didn't know what I was saying in the frog's language, but we held a conversation, intermittently, for several minutes. Perhaps he was petitioning for an early release, based on his good behavior.

All of the frogs were released, and continue to thrive in our woods, on our house, on our deck. I still get a little thrill when I hear the little trill of the Gray Tree Frog. And when we're reading in our library during these warm summer nights, I see a Gray Tree Frog using the sticky discs on his toes to cling to the windows.

Four toes on front feet, five toes on back feet.

We get a good look at his white belly, and a glimpse of the yellow under his legs. I think I'll name him "Blog". He is feasting on the insects drawn to the lights, as we feast our eyes on this marvelous little creature. And we welcome these summer tenants to our Tree Frog House.

I'd like to think that these must be the offspring of the tree frogs that spent the school year entertaining my students, and providing them with hands-on learning experiences during our study of Amphibians.

Now, four years later, I feel blessed to still be teaching, and reaching thousands of "students" around the world. And, although I can't see your faces, I appreciate getting feedback and comments from you, as I  Blog the Tree Frog.

(Click on photos to enlarge)

Photo LocationsHome Woods, Cannonsburg, Michigan


Peterson Field Guide - Reptiles & Amphibians (Peterson) (Eastern/Central North America)

summer world (a season of bounty) - Bernd Heinrich (Heinrich)